A city totally unique
According to the legends, the city of Ephesus was established by some woman warriors called “Amazon”. Its name comes from city's mythological founder Ephesos, queen of the Amazons. Ephesos was a Lydian Amazon, after whom the city of Ephesus was thought to have been named; she was also said to have been the first to honour Artemis and to have surnamed the goddess Ephesia. The city was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. Carians and Leleges were probably the first inhabitants of the city.

World Heritage

Ephesus has been settled by starting from Çukuriçi Höyük of Neolithic Era to Ayasuluk of the Middle Age. In its far history, Ephesus has been changed multiple times according to the necessities and habituations. Therefore this city contains whole characteristics of the history which occurred in these 1600 hectares of land. The city had an important role in commerce and the relationships between East and the Aegean Sea. Ephesus became the centre of the region in the length of time with its wealth. Throughout history, Ephesus Region was filled with alluvium that the Little Meander Küçük Menderes River brought, so there are many settlements in spread zones.
Ephesus of the Rome and Late Antic Period is the only Megacity of ancient world where there is no other settlements in following ages. Thus, Ephesus provides many possibilities for the observation of the Antiquity. The protection of these evidences contributes many attainments for world heritage.

Arcadian way


Additionally, Ephesus is also a good example for the religion history. Ephesus Artemis Cult is one of the most efficient and most important cults of the world. Artemis was adored in whole region. Many people came and visited their goddess in Ephesus. As many important people of Christianity stayed in Ephesus, the city became a centre of crusaders among late antic period and middle age. Finally the construction of İsa Bey Mosque which has the Byzantine Architecture characteristics became the evidence of Christian and Muslim interaction in this area.

One of the other evidences which show us the singularity of Ephesus is the periphery of the port. The hexagonal basin was surrounded by shelters, warehouses, docks and markets. This area was providing comfort for itinerants who came to Ephesus. Canals near the port have been restructured several times. There are graves which belong to 3rd and 5th centuries near canals. There are many other places for port basins along the Little Meander Küçük Menderes (Kaystros).





These places were used as external port of the city. The existence of an artificial port with canals, some other external harbours and a necropolis beside them, is something unique on the Antiquity.

Austrian Archaeological  Institute